Remember back when the conservative voters of this state won a massive victory on 11.2.10, and we felt Texas deserved a conservative Speaker who would appoint committee chairs and members who would further the conservative agenda? For over three months the conservatives in Texas waged a battle against the choice of Rep. Joe Straus as Speaker of the Texas House because we knew that Joe Straus was no conservative.
Unfortunately, on Jan. 11, 2011, Joe Straus was chosen once again to be the Speaker of the House, but not before he was forced to spend millions of dollars to hire 16 consultants and “buy” votes from his fellow House members, as reported by TexasGOPVote.com
Straus’ gambling interest was one of the biggest concerns conservatives had with Straus as Speaker because of his long-standing business interests in gambling. He and/or his family own Retama Park in Selma (near San Antonio), Laredo Downs, Valle de los Tesoros Park in McAllen, and Austin Jockey Club.
Texas Observer Andrew Wheat wrote on 4.8.10, “Texas House Speaker Joe Straus III’s family could earn tens of millions of dollars if lawmakers and voters agree to let racetracks install slot machines (VLT’s).”
Retama has been losing money for several seasons, and it is not hard to imagine that Straus desperately wants to keep his family out of bankruptcy. It is also common knowledge that land has already been bought in Austin along FM 1625 at Texas Highway 45 and Old Lockhart Road to set up a racetrack called Longhorn Downs; Retama Entertainment Group (Straus’ family) is to manage it.
HOW GAMBLING SUPPORTERS PLAYED THEIR GAME
This is the way the gambling supporters played their “game.” First, the gambling supporters contributed more than $134,051 to Straus’ campaign to help him once again get elected as Speaker.
Straus claimed that he would recuse himself from any gambling legislation, but there is no way that he could “recuse” himself from his close personal ties to the people he has done business with all his life.
Straus also knew that he could control the outcome of the gambling legislation if he carefully selected the people he appointed to the various House committees.
To make sure the bills received favorable votes, the gambling supporters gave handsome sums of money to Texas legislators for their campaigns – to both Democrats and Republicans – in an effort to make them feel obligated to the gambling industry.
Please see the three charts posted at the bottom of this report that contain information from the Texas Ethics Commission website. Notice the large number of legislators who received gambling supporters’ campaign contributions. Many of these Texas Legislators are either chairs or members of committees through which the gambling bills will pass. Here are the gambling contribution totals:
Texans for Economic Development — $538,500.00
Indian Reservations — $26,125.00
EMPTY RHETORIC ABOUT GAMBLING
Next, the gambling supporters found Texas Legislators who would carry the gambling expansion legislation, making sure that the bills contain all sorts of “comforting” statements about how controlled and legal such gambling operations would be and how huge numbers of jobs would be created for Texans. (Similar “comforting” gambling bills have been passed in many other states, and the graft and corruption have always followed.)
One of these “comforting” statements is being bandied around right now by the gambling supporters: “The expansion of gambling in Texas would create 77,500 permanent jobs in Texas.” First of all, how is this possible when there are only 178,700 jobs in the gambling industry nationwide?
What kind of gambling jobs would these be? The vast majority of employees would make less than $20,000 per year, possibly even lower than that because jobs in Texas usually pay less than the national average.
Furthermore, there is no incentive for gambling workers to move up; and there is plenty of data that suggests that people with low incomes wager more in total dollar amounts than people who make above $50,000 in income. In other words, the poorly educated gambling workers with their meager salaries of less than $20,000 per year would tend to gamble their paychecks away.
(Data taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook Handbook – 2010 – 2011 — http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos275.htm)
It is the billionaire owners of the casinos and the VLT’s (Video Lottery Terminals) who make all the money, and many of them live out of state.
The gambling supporters have promised glorious outcomes if they can only expand their operations – money for Higher Education, scholarships and loans for students, money for the state coffers to plug the budget holes, and other such vain promises that never seem to materialize. Remember when Gov. Ann Richards promised that the lottery profits would be used for public education?
HERE COMES THE GAMBLING LEGISLATION — 2011
On March 3, 2011, bi-partisan legislation was filed to allow Texas voters to decide whether to allow slot machines (a.k.a., video lottery terminals/VLT’s, video lottery games, games of chance played on terminals that are electronically simulated) at existing horse and greyhound racetracks and Indian reservations and also full-fledged resort casinos.
FIRST PAIR OF IDENTICAL BILLS
*The percentage beside each Legislator’s name indicates the score given to that person by Young Conservatives of Texas.
Both the House and the Senate filed Joint Resolutions (HJR 111, SJR33) that would trigger the constitutional amendment elections to allow slots.
HJR 111 was authored by Rep. Beverly Woolley (R – Brenham – 68 %). To take effect, two-thirds of each house of the Legislature and a majority of voters would have to approve a constitutional amendment.
Speaker Straus chose the House committees, and he also chose the Pro Tempore. Is it any coincidence that the person he chose to be the “vice-president” of the House is the person who is helping to carry the racetrack gambling bill – Rep. Beverly Woolley?
The identical companion bill, SJR 33, was co-authored by Sen. Juan “Chuy” Hinojosa (D – McAllen – 19 %) and Sen. Jeff Wentworth (R – San Antonio – 37 %). Sen. Hinojosa is a big recipient of campaign donations from the gambling lobby.
Here is the link to HJR111/SJR 33: http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/BillLookup/History.aspx?LegSess=82R&Bill=HJR111
SECOND PAIR OF IDENTICAL GAMBLING BILLS
HB 2111 was co-authored by Rep. Beverly Woolley and Rep. Naomi Gonzalez (D - El Paso – newly elected). Rep. Gonzalez is also a big recipient of campaign contributions from the gambling lobby.
SB 1118 was co-authored by Sen. Chuy Hinojosa and Sen. Jeff Wentworth.
Both HB 2111 and SB 1118 lay out the details of the VLT proposal.
Here is the link to HB 2111/SB 1118:
OTHER GAMBLING EXPANSION BILLS
HJR 112, co-authored by Rep. Jose Menendez (D – San Antonio – 16 %) and Rep. Mike Hamilton (R – Mauriceville – 71 %), has also been filed; and it would require a constitutional amendment creating the Texas Gaming Commission to regulate casino games and slot machines by licensed operators and certain Indian tribes. Both Menendez and Hamilton have received significant campaign dollars from the gambling industry.
Here is the link to HJR 112:
RESORT CASINO BILLS
Yet more gambling bills, SJR 34 and HJR 112, have been filed by Sen. Rodney Ellis (D – Houston – 4 %), Sen. Eddie Lucio (D – San Benito – 16%), and Rep. Jose Menendez (D – San Antonio – 16 %). These identical bills would bring full resort casinos to Texas. Both Ellis and Lucio have been the recipients of significant amounts of campaign contributions from the gambling lobby.
Link to SJR 34/HJR 112:
NEXT STEP: LICENSING & ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES COMMITTEE
All of the House bills on gambling expansion will go to the Licensing & Administrative Procedures Committee where Speaker Joe Straus “stacked the committee.”
Based on their past voting records and associations with Speaker Straus, the members with asterisks beside their names will more than likely support the expansion of gambling in Texas.
Note: In January 2009, the Crew of 11 (a.k.a., the ABC’s) made up of Rep. Charlie Geren, Rep. Rob Eissler, Rep. Brian McCall, Rep. Burt Solomons, Rep. Jim Pitts, Rep. Tommy Merritt, Rep. Delwin Jones, Rep. Byron Cook, Rep. Jim Keffer, Rep. Joe Straus, and Rep. Edmund Kuempel met in secret to form a plan to oust then-Speaker, Tom Craddick…
The Crew of 11 decided that Joe Straus, a RINO (Republican-in-Name-Only), would make a better Speaker even though he had deep gambling interests, had voted to make it easier to perform third trimester abortions, supported homosexuals as foster parents, was co-author of a bill that would have allowed Planned Parenthood to control public school sex education, was co-author of a bill to allow embryonic stem cell research, and had been ranked low because of his voting record on conservative issues (68 % to 50 % ) by Eagle Forum, Heritage Alliance, Texas Right To Life, and Young Conservatives of Texas (2007).
Licensing & Administrative Procedures
*Mike Hamilton – R — Chair – 71 %
*Chente Quintanilla – D — Vice-Chair – 23 %
*Joe Driver – 66 %
*Mike Hamilton – 71 %
*Senfronia Thompson – 13 %
*Charlie Geren – 59 % (Crew of 11 who chose Straus as Speaker in 81st Legislative Session, close associate of Speaker Straus)
*Roland Gutierrez – 16 %
*Patricia Harless – 21 %
*John Kuempel – new this session (His father – Crew of 11 — strong supporter of gambling legislation)
*Jose Menendez – 16 %
The gambling bills will undoubtedly emerge from the Licensing & Administrative Procedures Committee, and Speaker Straus will probably make sure that they are given high-priority numbers (from HB 2 – 15).
NEXT STOP, CALENDARS COMMITTEE
Next, the gambling bills will go to the Calendars Committee where Rep. Todd Hunter (R – Corpus Christi — 68 % ) is the chair. Rep. Hunter has been the recipient of gambling donations and wants a casino to be built in Corpus Christi which is in his district.
Rep. Hunter’s reward for his close association with Speaker Straus was to be placed on the Redistricting Committee which is considered to be a very powerful and important committee this session. As stated in the Austin American-Statesman:
Rep. Todd Hunter, R-Corpus Christi. Four years ago, Hunter wasn’t even in the House. Now this close Straus ally is the Calendars chairman…One other note: Notice how many members of the Straus inner circle are on the Redistricting Committee. Solomons, Hunter, Keffer, Branch, Geren, Eissler. The speaker will have plenty of avenues to pursue should he want to weigh in here.
The Vice-Chair of Calendars is Dennis Bonnen (R – Angleton – 81 %). The Austin American-Statesman put it this way about Bonnen:
Rep. Dennis Bonnen, R-Angleton. Bonnen wasn’t one of the original Anybody-But-Craddick Republicans who first elevated Straus to be speaker two years ago. But when Republicans met in a caucus meeting the day before the session to choose a speaker candidate, Bonnen was the most vocal about how the vote would be taken — and it all came up roses for Straus. Now Bonnen is the chairman of the Sunset Advisory Commission and he’s leading the committee that will hear voter ID bills — a way to endear himself to the GOP grass roots if all goes well. He is also the vice chairman of Calendars and is on Transportation and Higher Ed — all strong.
Calendars Committee Members
*Dan Branch – Straus inner circle
*Garnet Coleman – Democrat – 10 %
*Byron Cook – Crew of 11
*Charlie Geren – Crew of 11
*Jim Keffer – Straus inner circle
*Tracy King – Democrat – 32 %
*Lois Kolkhorst – Appointed by Straus as Chair of Public Health
*Eddie Lucio III – Democrat – 16 %
Allan Ritter – Democrat – 32% (switched to Republican in 2010) – As stated by the Austin American-Statesman:
Party-Switchers Reps. Chuck Hopson, Allan Ritter and Aaron Pena kept or got chairmanships. All three switched from the Democrats to the Republicans between sessions. Ritter did particularly well, getting seats on Calendars and Ways and Means. And don’t forget that the aforementioned Todd Hunter also used to be a Democrat.
*Eddie Rodriguez — Democrat – 13 %
*Burt Solomons – Crew of 11 – Straus inner circle
*Vicki Truitt – closely associated with Crew of 11
*John Zerwas – Republican – 61 %
Legislative bills cannot come out onto the House floor for a vote until March 11 (60 days after legislature begins), but the gambling bills can be heard in the Calendars Committee one week before March 11.
FULL HOUSE FLOOR
On the full House floor, it takes 100 supporters to send the gambling bills to the voters as Constitutional amendments.
Gambling lobbyists can contribute up until 30 days before the beginning of the legislative session (Jan. 11, 2011). Please see the three charts posted at the bottom of this report that indicate the contribution amounts and dates the money was given by the gambling lobby to Texas Legislators.
Texans for Economic Development PAC — $538,500.00 (Texans for Economic Development is a front group for the gambling lobby. Please notice how many dollars they handed out right before the cut-off date.)
Texas Gaming Association PAC – $222,250.00
Indian Reservations – $26,125.00
Gambling Lobby to Speaker Joe Straus from 2005-2010 — $134,051.11
The plan is to get these gambling bills in and out of committee as fast as possible so that those of us who are against the expansion of gambling in Texas do not have time to gather our forces.
TEXANS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT — FRONT GROUP FOR GAMBLING LOBBY
Texans for Economic Development is a front group for horseracing track owners, and one of its top priorities has been enacting laws allowing slot machines at racetracks (usually under the euphemism “Video Lottery Terminals”).
Will Lutz stated in The Lone Star Report on 4.9.10:
Texans for Economic Development is not an honorable group, and honorable candidates should have nothing to do with this organization. It’s that simple…Two years ago, this organization spent lots of money running television ads with false and dishonest attacks on three outstanding conservatives — Phil King, Betty Brown, and Nathan Macias. The group’s ads contained claims that are provably untrue (http://www.lonestarreport.org/Home/tabid/38/EntryId/521/Is-discredited-gambling-lobby-group-meddling-in-GOP-primaries-again.aspx).
Even the Texas Gaming Association disagreed strongly with the tactics used by Texans for Economic Development because they targeted their ads at candidates who opposed their views.
SOCIETAL COSTS OF GAMBLING
Professor Earl L. Grinols, a distinguished professor of economics at Hankamer School of Business at Baylor University and at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, wrote Gambling in America: Costs and Benefits(published in March 2004). Grinols was a former senior economic adviser to President Ronald Reagan and testified before Congress and dozens of state legislatures on the economics of gambling.
Grinols decided to write his book because there was a great need for an economist to study the issue rather than a casino promoter or someone from an Indian tribe who had vested interests. His book is still considered one of the best economic sources on the topic of gambling.
Grinols found that because of the expansion of casinos:
The cost of pathological and problem gambling soared to nearly half the annual cost of drug abuse in the U. S.
Increased crime, lost work time, bankruptcies, and financial hardships faced by the families of gambling addicts reached epidemic proportions, costing the economy as much as $54 billion annually.
Casino gambling caused up to $289 in social costs for every $46 of economic benefit.
In 2003 dollars, the cost to society of an additional pathological gambler was $10,330.
The cost of raising tax dollars to cover some of these costs raised the totals to $11,303.
Grinols concluded that in the Midwest and South [including Texas], gambling caused a net loss to the community by removing gambling dollars from the local economy, and the local taxpayers had to pay for the “increased crime, personal bankruptcy, domestic violence, lost workdays, child abuse and other social costs from problem gamblers…about 10 percent of the population gambles regularly and accounts for up to 80 percent of the wagers in casino enterprises.”
National Gambling Impact Study Commission
According to the New York Times (7.29.10), the National Gambling Impact Study Commission found that the social costs of gambling outweighed the benefits by 3 to 1.
Electronic gambling (e.g., slot machines) is one of the most dangerous forms of gambling because it preys on pathological gamblers. “It encourages and profits from the vulnerabilities and weaknesses of its clientele…People generally don’t embezzle from their employer, commit suicide or murder over a lost tennis game, though they do over their gambling losses.”
One of the reasons the gambling industry is so excited about race track slot machines is that they could be set up in a very short time whereas casinos take longer to build.
“The Hidden Costs of Bringing Gambling to Texas” by Lynn Woolley, Commentator and Talk Show Host
06:41 PM CDT on Wednesday, May 12, 2010
Excerpts from this article:
Detroit’s experience is a case in point. The city was tired of losing dollars to the big casino across the river in Windsor, Ontario. It took billions of dollars, including millions from city government for land, but Detroit got its wish. Soon after, 38-year-old police Officer Solomon Bell lost up to $20,000 at the MGM Grand Detroit Casino. After losing another $3,500 playing blackjack, he drew his service revolver and shot himself in the head.
And there’s the organized crime that seems to show up wherever there’s gambling. In 1996, 25 people were convicted in Louisiana in a scheme to skim video poker profits for the Marcello, Genovese and Gambino crime families. The good news is that gambling profits can help fund more police officers and perhaps set up a special state agency to investigate gambling corruption.
Yes, Texas just might make a pile of money from casinos. We’d also get what comes along with them: devastated families, suicides, more organized crime, a big new state bureaucracy and the massive cost of building them in the first place.
“Gamblings Impact on Families” – by Ronald A. Reno, Focus on the Family
In a survey of nearly 400 Gamblers Anonymous members, 28 % reported being either separated or divorced as a direct result of their gambling problems.
The number of divorces in Harrison County, Mississippi, has nearly tripled since the introduction of casinos. The county, which is home to ten casinos, has averaged an additional 850 divorces per year since casinos arrived.
2 million adults identified a spouse’s gambling as a significant factor in a prior divorce.
Child abuse and neglect
“Children of compulsive gamblers are often prone to suffer abuse, as well as neglect, as a result of parental problem or pathological gambling.”
In Indiana, a review of the state’s gaming commission records revealed that 72 children were found abandoned on casino premises during a 14-month period.
In Louisiana and South Carolina, children died after being locked in hot cars for hours while their caretakers gambled.
An Illinois mother was sentenced to prison for suffocating her infant daughter in order to collect insurance money to continue gambling.
Cases of child abandonment at Foxwoods, the nation’s largest casino in Ledyard, Conn., became so commonplace that authorities were forced to post signs in the casino’s parking lots warning parents not to leave children in cars unattended.
Between one quarter and one half of spouses of compulsive gamblers have been abused.
Case studies of 10 casino communities conducted for the National Gambling Impact Study Commission revealed that the majority of those communities witnessed increases in domestic violence relative to the introduction of casinos.
Domestic violence shelters on Mississippi’s Gulf Coast reported increases in requests for assistance ranging from 100 to 300 percent after the introduction of casinos.
Domestic violence murders in at least 11 states have been traced to gambling problems since 1996.
*These statistics were taken from the National Gambling Impact Study Commission, National Opinion Research Center, and from Associated Press articles. To see the full documentation, please go to: http://www.troubledwith.com/AbuseandAddiction/A000000707.cfm?topic=abuse%20and%20addiction%3A%20gambling
Arnie Wexler’s Testimony to National Gambling Impact Study Commission
Wexler was the Executive Director of the Council on Compulsive Gambling of New Jersey and has spoken extensively across the country to compulsive gamblers:
I was 30 years old, married with 2 children. I was in debt for the amount of three times my annual salary. I owed money to two finance companies, three banks, loan sharks and bookmakers and family, friends and co-workers for a total of thirty-two people.
I had just written a check to a stock brokerage firm for $4400.00 (to purchase stocks) and all I had was $10 in my account.
I thought about suicide on a daily basis, but never had enough guts to carry it out.
I was a plant manager for a Fortune 500 company, supervising 300 people and committing illegal acts to support my gambling addiction. Even in this phase I came to work every day in a suit and tie since my addiction was not visible to the untrained eye…
Racetracks, which were a dying industry, are now on the upturn with simulating, off track betting, poker rooms and slot machines. What used to be a four hour event is now an all day (and sometimes all night) event. It’s a haven for compulsive gamblers…
In a study done by UMDNJ (University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey) it was found that 22-26 % of those patients being admitted to an out-patient mental health setting also had a compulsive gambling problem…
We know that casino workers are at greater risk for compulsive gambling problems. They like quick action jobs and would prefer to be around gambling activities.
A casino worker (a few years ago) kidnapped a teenager and held him for ransom. He planned to use the money to help his family by continuing to gamble so he could win back the money he had lost.
There was a casino employee who had himself barred from gambling due to his problem.
Another worker sold her body on a consistent basis to high rollers to support her gambling addiction.
A casino credit manager with a gambling problem, let a gambler with bad credit, sign markers in order to get a ‘kick back.’
*Please go to this link to read Wexler’s own account and those of many across the country who have been involved in compulsive gambling:
http://www.aswexler.com/html/natlcommission.html Suzi Painter, Executive Director, Christian Life Commission, Baptist Convention of Texas
3.11 — http://scotthochberg.com/slots.html – “Casinos Bring Addiction, Economic Harm”
Excerpts from this report:
Gambling is a failed plot. The 270 casinos in the entire state of Nevada only generate $1 billion for the state. Yet that’s how much revenue is promised here [Texas]. 41 race track casinos nationally yield only $2.2 billion in taxes.
Promoters also promise 53,000 new jobs. Reality check? If you apply the national average for race track casino (racino) jobs to the 8 active and 5 inactive licensed Texas tracks, employment would only be 8,632 workers – many seasonal.
Racino planners say 98% of the dollars wagered in slots come from within a fifty mile radius of the track. Rep. Hochberg’s district would have to wager $115 million each year if racinos are to raise $1B for the state. And those gambled dollars would come out of the local businesses…
Nobody disputes that 1% to 2% of the population will suffer from pathological gambling if slots expand into their community. Seven states have quantified their costs of gambling addiction, bankruptcy and crime averaging $13,000 per person. Rep. Hochberg’s district alone would bear a cost of $18 M a year. There is no state money for treatment.
The horse racing tracks made empty promises in 1987, and they are promising big again. In 1987, the tracks promised tax revenue for Texas of $110 million per year. This has never been realized.
Racinos would open the floodgates for Indian casinos. Federal Indian gaming laws overpower states’ limitations on slot expansion…California and Oklahoma tried to control the “footprint”, but each now have more than 100 tribal casinos.
Casino gambling is an inefficient, unreliable, regressive form of revenue generation for Texas. Any expansion of gambling in the state will subject Texas to the same forces of Indian casino proliferation that have plagued other states….
Texans Against Gambling – “Race Tracks and Video Slot Machines – VLT’s – 2008”
Most recently it [the racing industry] began lobbying for legalization of Video Slot Machines (VLTs) at the tracks, arguing again that slots at the tracks would provide significant tax revenue to the state. They do not emphasize that failing race tracks would become major slot machine casinos, also known as ‘Racinos,’ overnight.
Video Slot Machines are known as the ‘crack cocaine’ of gambling because of their addictive nature…The addiction cycle is shorter – about 1 year to become addicted… In fact, Big Gambling pays psychologists to assist game designers to make these machines more addictive, juicing up hypnotic sounds and sights and apparent near-misses to make users believe that skill is somehow involved in winning. In 2002, the Rhode Island Gambling Treatment Program identified video slots as ‘the most addictive form of gambling in history.’
Texas Public Policy Foundation — Research Report — March 2005 — “VLTs — What Are the Odds of Texas Winning?” by Chris Patterson
Excerpts from this report:
*There are well-documented costs that are associated with gambling:
*Regulatory activities generally consume about 10 percent of gambling revenues;
*Criminal justice costs increase 8 to 13 percent;
*State lottery revenue decreases approximately 10 percent;
*Revenues from taxes on non-gambling goods and services decline as discretionary spending is redirected to gambling; and
*Jobs are lost in non-gambling businesses.
*Sales declined 10 to 20 percent among local businesses in Natchez, Mississippi after gambling was introduced;
*50 percent of the city’s retail businesses and restaurants closed in Atlantic City within 10 years of the legalization of gambling;
*Violent crime increases up to 13 percent in counties with casinos that are least 4 years old;
*The State of Delaware reports underwriting between $1 to 1.5 million annually on social services related to gambling;
*The State of Wisconsin and local communities spend over $63 million annually on social and criminal justice costs associated with gambling;
*The American Insurance Institute identifies $1.3 billion in annual costs related to gambling and insurance fraud; and
*Bankruptcy rates in U.S. counties with casinos are 18 percent higher than those without casinos.
No matter what glowing promises the gambling supporters make about the benefits of gambling revenue, the problems that come along with the expansion of gambling always follow: devastated families, addictive behavior, increased divorces and suicides, drug/alcohol abuse, more organized crime, massive start-up costs, a big state bureaucracy, and a loss of income to community businesses.
The plan by gambling supporters is to get their gambling bills in and out of committee as fast as possible so that those of us who are against the expansion of gambling in Texas do not have time to gather our forces. Wrong!
Please use the information contained in this report to contact your Texas State Legislators and build your case as to why we do not want an expansion of gambling in our state.
In all fairness, it is possible that Legislators did not know campaign contributions from the innocent-sounding group called “Texans for Economic Development” were actually coming straight from the gambling industry. However, the campaign contributions that came from the Indian reservations and from the Texas Gaming Association speak for themselves.
It is also possible that even though numerous Texas Legislators accepted campaign contributions from the gambling industry, the Legislators may choose not to support the gambling bills.
This is where you come in. By your contacting your Legislators, you can help them not to feel obligated to the gambling industry but instead to feel obligated to you, a constituent, to vote against gambling expansion in Texas.
Please write letters to your local newspapers, blogs, and Internet friends in Texas; and tell your faith-based organizations of the dangers of gambling expansion for families and for communities.